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By Robert Havard

Why is the Spanish enter to Surrealism so specific and robust? What do such popular figures as Dalí, Buñuel, Lorca, Aleixandre and Alberti have in universal? This e-book untangles the problem of Surrealism in Spain by means of targeting a constant function in Spanish avant-garde poetry, paintings and picture of the past due twenties and thirties: its supersaturation in faith. A repressive spiritual upbringing, quite often below the Jesuits, intensifies either the paranoiac and the paranormal - Surrealism's dual pillars - that have been already deeply ingrained within the Spanish psyche. impressive examples are Lorca's prophetic voice in manhattan, Dalí and Buñuel's Eucharistic adjustments, Alberti's Loyolan materio-mysticism. Alberti is the fulcrum of this research due to the fact his poetry is going the complete distance of Surrealism's evolution from Freudian catharsis to metaphysical transcendence until eventually it expires in a Marxist response to church-bound culture whilst his state convulses in civil conflict, the surrealist ethos in Spain isn't reducible to measuring how heavily it imitates French conception. it really is 'more severe' than the French, says Alberti, and its bearings are came across on a move of psychological ache and in a trip out of hell that made actual paintings in perform. ROBERT HAVARD is Professor of Spanish, collage of Wales, Aberystwyth.

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Eighty four (1988), fifty five. the relationship is apparent in Erotic Drawing (1931), the place the acts of masturbation and spitting into the chalice are depicted in shut proximity; see Salvador Dalí (Tate Gallery courses, London, 1980), black-and-white representation no. forty-one. 27 Ernesto Giménez Caballero, Yo, inspector de alcantarillas, seventy five. 28 See Maurice Lever, Marquis de Sade, A Biography, trans. Arthur Goldhammer (HarperCollins, London, 1993), 119, 121. 29 Georges Bataille, Madame Edwarda, Le Mort, Histoire de l’oeil (Union Générale d’Editions, Paris), 160–1. The series happens within the bankruptcy entitled ‘Simone’s Confession and Sir Edmund’s Mass’ in Georges Bataille, tale of a watch, With Essays via Susan Sontag and Roland Barthes, trans. Joachim Neugroschel (Marion Boyars, London, 1979), 59–62. 26 TRANSUBSTANTIATION AND METAMORPHOSIS 159 develop into metamorphosed into “something else” ’, a procedure which could ‘go directly to infinity’. Dalí observes: The impressive factor approximately this phenomenon (which used to be to develop into the keystone of my destiny aesthetic) used to be that having as soon as noticeable the sort of photos i'll regularly thereafter see it back on the mere dictate of my will …30 In related vein he speaks of the pebbles, shells and particularly the startling rock formations at the north Catalan coast that he explored as a boy and occasionally marvelled at from a ship together with his father: each rock, each promontory of Cape Creus is in everlasting metamorphosis. each one is a tenet that activates spontaneous visualization of an eagle, a camel, a chicken, a lion, a lady – but when you process it from the ocean, the closer you get, the extra the symbolism develops and alterations. it's a continuous simulacrum. The chook turns into a wild animal after which a barnyard poultry … and but, after we land, the granite underneath our ft is difficult, compact, transparent, implacable – after having double-dealt us so always. 31 This ‘metamorphosis of the real’, dependent because it used to be on easy early life daydreams, built to such an volume that Dalí later claimed: ‘I myself can interpret six, 8, or ten pictures even as from a unmarried imaginative and prescient. ’32 yet one is usually vulnerable to invest that Dalí’s continual recourse to spiritual terminology while conversing of his artwork is attributable no less than partially to the hyperlink among metamorphosis and the Eucharist. during this vein he refers to his moments of concept as a ‘state of extreme prophecy’; he claims his work are endowed with ‘the personality of prodigious revelation’; he compares his creativity with Santa Teresa’s and boldly affirms, ‘I lived my ardour to the whole like Christ’. 33 there's, in brief, paradigmatic precision in Dalí’s admittedly exaggerated assertion: ‘each photo is a Mass within which I distribute the Eucharist of a knowledge’. 34 A recurrent topic emanating from the Eucharist is nutrition and ingestion. Jesus, as Geoffrey Wainwright notes, often pictured paradise when it comes to feasting (Matthew eight: eleven; Luke thirteen: 29),35 and during this experience communion nutrients, because the antepast of heaven, has hyperlinks with sexual gratification.

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