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He additionally was once at the board of the laser corporation Patlex from 1988 to 1996. James A. Lovell , Jr . (b. March 25, 1928, Cleveland, Ohio, U. S. ) T he U. S. astronaut James A. Lovell, Jr. , was once the commander of the approximately disastrous Apollo thirteen flight to the Moon in 1970. 109 Explorers of the 20 th and twenty first Centuries: From Auguste Piccard to James Cameron Lovell, a graduate (1952) of the U. S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, Maryland, turned a attempt pilot. He used to be serving as a flight teacher and safeguard officer on the time (1963) he was once chosen through NASA for the manned house software. Lovell followed Frank Borman at the record-breaking 14-day flight of Gemini 7. introduced December four, 1965, Gemini 7 used to be joined in area by way of Gemini 6, introduced eleven days later and manned via Walter M. Schirra, Jr. , and Thomas P. Stafford, for the 1st profitable area rendezvous. Lovell joined Edwin E. Aldrin for the final flight of the Gemini sequence, Gemini 12, which was once introduced on November eleven, 1966, and remained in orbit for 4 days. Apollo eight used to be introduced on December 21, 1968, and carried Lovell, Borman, and William Anders at the first manned flight round the Moon. This flight used to be the 1st of 3 preparatory to the Moon touchdown of Apollo eleven. With astronauts Fred W. Haise, John L. Swigert, Jr. , and Lovell aboard, Apollo thirteen lifted off on April eleven, 1970, headed for the Fra Mauro Hills at the Moon. On April thirteen, nearly 205,000 miles (330,000 km) from Earth, an explosion ruptured an oxygen tank within the provider module. The ensuing scarcity of strength and oxygen pressured the abandonment of the Moon challenge. Apollo 13’s workforce replaced direction to swing as soon as round the Moon after which go back to Earth. With the profitable go back of Apollo thirteen on April 17, Lovell had accomplished greater than 715 hours of house shuttle. Lovell remained in NASA, and in 1971 he grew to become a deputy director of the Johnson house heart, Houston, Texas. He retired from the army and the distance application in 1973 yet remained in Houston as a company government till his retirement in 1991. one hundred ten Andriyan Grigoryevich Nikolayev A ndriyan Grigoryevich Nikolayev (b. September five, 1929, Shorshely, Chuvash A. S. S. R. , U. S. S. R. [now Chuvashia, Russia]— d. July three, 2004, Cheboksary, Chuvashia, Russia) T he Soviet cosmonaut Andriyan Grigoryevich Nikolayev piloted the Vostok three spacecraft, introduced August eleven, 1962. whilst Vostok four, piloted through Pavel R. Popovich, was once introduced an afternoon later, there have been, for the 1st time, manned craft in area at the same time. the 2 made radio and visible touch, yet there has been no try at docking. either landed on August 15. The son of a employee on a collective farm, Nikolayev studied and labored in forestry till drafted into the Soviet military in 1950. An early curiosity in flying endured, and he quickly transferred to the air strength; in 1954 he turned a pilot. In 1957 he joined the Communist celebration, and in March 1960 he entered cosmonaut education. In 1962 he turned the 3rd Russian cosmonaut to trip into area, and through his 96-hour flight, which set an patience list, he orbited Earth sixty four instances.

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